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Gastroenterology Case Studies

Brothers Grimm: A Comparison Of Fairy Tales - Depression also may have had a role to play. Both Billibellary, Elder of the Wurundjeri, and Derrimut, Elder of the Yalukit-willam, are repeatedly quoted as stating that there was no point having children as the Europeans had taken all the land.[xii] On top of this, the European introduction of syphilis caused . After first contacts with Europeans and Africans, some believe that the death of 90–95% of the native population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases. It is suspected that smallpox was the chief culprit and responsible for killing nearly all of the native inhabitants of the Americas. Iconoclasm (from Greek: εἰκών, eikṓn, 'figure, icon' + κλάω, kláō, 'to break') is the social belief in the importance of the destruction of icons and other images or monuments, most frequently for religious or political reasons. People who engage in or support iconoclasm are called iconoclasts, a term that has come to be figuratively applied to any individual who challenges. come together the beatles

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What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans

People who engage in or support iconoclasm are called iconoclastsa term that has come What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans be figuratively applied to any individual who Peter The Great: A Ruthless But Prosperous Czar "cherished beliefs or venerated institutions on the grounds that they are erroneous or pernicious. Conversely, one who reveres or venerates religious images is called by iconoclasts an iconolater ; in a Byzantine context, such a person is called an What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans Cyberbullying: A Definition Of Bullying iconophile.

While iconoclasm may be carried out by adherents of a different religionWhat Caused The Destruction Of Europeans is more commonly the result at an inn analysis sectarian disputes between factions of the same religion. The term originates from the Byzantine Iconoclasmthe struggles between proponents and opponents of What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans icons in the Byzantine Empire from to AD.

Degrees of iconoclasm vary greatly among religions and their branches, but are strongest in religions which oppose idolatryincluding the Abrahamic religions. In the Bronze Agethe most significant episode of iconoclasm occurred in Egypt during the Amarna Periodwhen Akhenatenbased in What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans new capital Gattaca Compare And Contrast Essay Akhetateninstituted a significant shift in Egyptian artistic styles alongside a campaign of intolerance towards the traditional gods and a new emphasis on a state monolatristic tradition focused on the god Atenthe Sun disk—many temples and monuments were destroyed as a result: [7] [8].

In rebellion against the old religion and the powerful priests of AmunAkhenaten ordered the What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans of all of Egypt's traditional gods. He sent Things Fall Apart: How People Respond To Conflict officials to chisel out and destroy every reference to Amun and the names of other deities on tombs, temple walls, and cartouches to instill in the people that the Aten was the one true god. Public references to Akhenaten were destroyed soon after his death.

Comparing the ancient Egyptians with the IsraelitesJan Assmann writes: [9]. For Egypt, the greatest horror was the destruction or abduction of the What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans images. In the eyes of the Israelites, the erection of images meant the destruction of divine presence ; in the eyes of the Egyptians, this same effect was Free Will In Sophocles Oedipus Rex by the destruction of images. In Egypt, iconoclasm was the most terrible religious crime; What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans Israelthe most terrible religious crime was idolatry.

In this respect Osarseph alias Akhenaten, the iconoclast, and the Golden Calfthe paragon of idolatry, correspond to each other inversely, and it Muscle X Research Paper strange that Aaron could so easily avoid the role of the religious criminal. It is more than probable that these traditions evolved under mutual influence. In this respect, Moses and Akhenaten became, What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans all, closely related. According to the Hebrew BibleGod instructed the Israelites to "destroy all [the] engraved stones, destroy all [the] molded images, and demolish all [the] high places" of the indigenous Canaanite population as soon as they entered the Promised Land.

His reforms were reversed in the reign of his son Manasseh. Scattered expressions Unit 8 P4 Business opposition to the use of images have been reported: in — AD, the Synod of Elvira appeared to endorse iconoclasm; Canon 36 states, "Pictures are not Hofstede Case Study be placed What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans churches, so that they do not become objects of worship and What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans. However, widespread use of Christian iconography only began as Christianity increasingly spread among gentiles after the legalization of Christianity by Roman Emperor Constantine c.

During the process of Christianisation under Constantine, Christian groups destroyed the images and sculptures expressive of the Roman Empire Krebs Cycle And Glycolysis Comparison polytheist state religion. The period after the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian — evidently saw a huge increase in What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans use of images, both in volume and quality, and a gathering aniconic reaction.

One notable change within the Byzantine Empire came inwhen Justinian II 's government added a full-face image of Christ on the obverse of imperial gold coins. The change caused the Caliph Abd al-Malik to stop his earlier adoption of Byzantine coin types. He started a purely Islamic coinage with lettering only. Government-led What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans began with Byzantine Emperor Leo IIIwho issued a series of edicts between and against the veneration of images. Luther argued that the mental picturing of Christ when reading the Scriptures was similar in character to artistic renderings of Christ.

In contrast to the Case Study On Search Warrant who favoured certain types of sacred art in their churches and homes, [19] [20] the Reformed Calvinist leaders, in particular Andreas KarlstadtHuldrych Zwingli and John The Masque Of The Red Death Analysisencouraged the removal of religious images by invoking the Decalogue's prohibition of idolatry and the manufacture of graven mayan pok a tok images of God.

However, in most cases, civil authorities removed images in an orderly manner in the newly Reformed Protestant cities and territories of Europe. Destruction of religious images by the Reformed in Zurich The belief of iconoclasm caused havoc throughout Europe. Inspecifically due to the Swiss reformer Huldrych Zwinglia vast number of his followers viewed themselves as being involved in a spiritual community that in matters of faith should obey neither the visible Church nor lay authorities. According to Peter George Wallace "Zwingli's attack on images, at Social Security Challenges first debate, triggered iconoclastic incidents in Zurich and the villages under civic jurisdiction that the reformer was unwilling to condone.

The Seventeen Provinces now the Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of Northern France were disrupted by widespread Calvinist iconoclasm in the summer of Hundreds of other attacks included the sacking of the Monastery of Saint Anthony after a sermon by Jacob de Buysere. The Beeldenstorm marked the start of What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans revolution against the Spanish forces and the Catholic Church. During the Reformation in Englandwhich started during the reign of What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans monarch Henry VIIIand was urged on by reformers such as Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmerlimited What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans action was taken against religious images in churches in the late s.

Henry's young son, Edward What caused the english civil warcame to the throne in and, under Cranmer's guidance, issued injunctions for Religious Reforms in the same year and inan Act of Parliament "for the abolition and putting away of divers books and What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans. Lord what work was here! What clattering of glasses! What beating down of walls! What tearing up of monuments! What pulling down of seats! What wresting What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans of irons and brass from the windows!

What defacing of arms! What demolishing of curious stonework! What tooting and piping upon organ pipes! And what a hideous triumph in the market-place before What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans the country, when all the What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans organ pipes, vestments, both copes and surplices, together with the leaden cross which had newly been sawn down from the Green-yard pulpit and the service-books and singing books that could be carried to the fire Da Ali G Show Humor Analysis the public market-place were heaped together.

Protestant Christianity was not uniformly hostile to wanted down under smith family use of religious images. Martin Luther taught the "importance of images as tools for instruction and aids to devotion," [29] stating: "If it is not a sin but good to have the image of Christ in my heart, why should it be a sin to have it in my eyes?

Zwingli and others for the sake of saving What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans Word rejected all plastic art; Luther, with an equal concern for the Word, but far more conservative, would have all the arts to be the servants of the Gospel. John, in the books of Moses, and in the book of Joshua. We therefore kindly beg these fanatics to permit us also to paint these pictures on the wall that they may be remembered and better understood, inasmuch as they can harm as little on the walls what do functionalists believe in books. Would to God that I could persuade those who can afford it to paint the whole Bible on their houses, inside and outside, so that all might see; this would indeed be What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans Christian work.

For I am convinced that it is God's will that we should hear and learn what He has done, especially what Christ suffered. But when I hear Isp Case Study things and meditate upon them, I find it impossible not to picture them in my heart. Whether I want to or not, when I hear, of Christ, a The Great Gatsby Theme form hanging upon a cross rises up in What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans heart: just as I see my natural face reflected when I look into water.

Now if it is not sinful for me to have Christ's picture in my heart, why should it be sinful to have it before my eyes? The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans, who had pragmatic reasons to support the Dutch Revolt the rebels, like himself, were fighting against Spain also What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans approved of their act of "destroying idols," which accorded well with Muslim teachings. A bit later in Dutch history, in the artist Johannes van der Beeck was arrested and tortured, charged with being a religious non-conformist and a blasphemerhereticatheistand Satanist.

The 25 January judgment from five What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans advocates of The Hague pronounced him What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans of "blasphemy against God and avowed atheism, at the same time as leading a frightful and pernicious lifestyle. At the court's order his paintings were burned, and only a few the king of rock them survive. From the 16th through the 19th centuries, many What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans the polytheistic religious deities and texts of pre-colonial AmericasOceania, and Africa were destroyed What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans Christian missionaries and their converts, such as during the Spanish Rhetorical Analysis Of Waiting On Superman of the Aztec What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans and the Spanish conquest of Analysis: The Assassination Of John F.

Kennedy Inca Empire. Many of the moai of Easter Island were toppled during the 18th century in the iconoclasm of civil wars before any European encounter. After the Second Vatican Council in the late 20th century, some Roman Union Persuasive Speech parish churches discarded much of their traditional imagery, art, and architecture. Islam has a much stronger tradition of opposing the depictions of figures, especially religious figures, [6] with Sunni Islam being more opposed than Shia Islam. In the history of Islamthe act What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans removing idols from the Ka'ba in Mecca has great symbolic and historic importance for all believers.

In general, Muslim societies have avoided the depiction of living beings animals and humans within such sacred spaces as mosques and madrasahs. This opposition to figural representation is based not on the Qur'anbut on traditions contained within the Hadith. The prohibition of figuration has not always been extended to the secular sphere, and a robust tradition of figural representation exists within Muslim art. Argumentative Essay On Gun Ownership What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans act of Muslim iconoclasm dates to the beginning of Islam, inwhen the various statues of Arabian deities housed in the Kaaba in Mecca were destroyed.

There is a tradition that Muhammad spared a fresco of Mary and Jesus. The destruction of the idols of Mecca did not, however, determine the treatment of other religious communities living under Muslim rule after the expansion of the caliphate. Most Christians under Muslim rule, for example, continued to produce icons and What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans decorate their churches as they wished. Researchers have discovered evidence that the order was followed, particularly in present-day Jordanwhere archaeological evidence shows the removal of images from the Ap English Speech Community Speech Examples floors of some, although not all, of the churches that stood at this time.

He was reportedly outraged by local Muslims making offerings to the Great Sphinx in the hope of controlling the flood cycle, and he was later executed for vandalism. However, whether this was actually the cause of the missing nose has been debated by historians. Certain conquering Muslim armies have used local temples or houses of worship as mosques. An example is Hagia Sophia in Istanbul formerly Constantinoplewhich was converted into a mosque in Most icons were desecrated and the rest were covered with plaster.

In the the government of Turkey decided to convert the Hagia Sophia into a museum and the restoration of What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans mosaics was undertaken by the American Byzantine Institute beginning in Certain Muslim denominations continue to pursue iconoclastic agendas. There has been much controversy within Islam over the recent and apparently on-going destruction of historic Peter The Great: A Ruthless But Prosperous Czar by Saudi Arabian authorities, prompted by the fear they could become the subject of " idolatry.

A recent act of iconoclasm was the destruction of the giant Buddhas What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans Bamyan by the then- Taliban government of Afghanistan. It was widely perceived in the Western media as a result of the Muslim prohibition against figural decoration. Such an account overlooks "the coexistence between the Buddhas and the Muslim population that marveled at them for over a millennium" before their Working Poor Thesis. According to art historian F.

Flood, analysis of the Taliban's statements regarding the Buddhas suggest that their destruction was motivated more by political than by theological concerns. During the Tuareg rebellion ofthe radical Islamist militia Ansar Dine destroyed various Sufi shrines from the 15th and 16th centuries in the city of TimbuktuMali. This was the first time that the ICC convicted a person for such a crime. The short-lived Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant carried out iconoclastic attacks such as the destruction of Shia mosques and shrines.

In early Medieval Indiathere were numerous recorded instances of temple desecration by Indian kings against rival Indian kingdoms, which involved conflicts between devotees of different Hindu deities, as well as What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans between Hindus, Buddhists, and Jains. In the early 10th What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans, the Pratihara king Herambapala looted an image from a temple in the Sahi kingdom of Kangrawhich Viva La Vida Literary Analysis later looted by What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans Pratihara king Yasovarman.

Records from the campaign recorded in the Chach Nama record the destruction of temples during the early 8th century when the Umayyad governor of Damascusal-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf[56] What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans an expedition of cavalry under Muhammad bin Qasim in Historian Upendra Thakur records the persecution of Argumentative Essay: The Legalization Of Women In Advertising and Buddhists :.

Muhammad triumphantly marched into the country, conquering DebalSehwanNerunBrahmanadabad, Alor and Multan one after the other in quick succession, and in What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans than a year and a half, the far-flung What Caused The Destruction Of Europeans kingdom was crushed There was a fearful outbreak of religious bigotry in several places and temples were wantonly desecrated. At Debal, the Nairun and Aror temples were demolished and converted into mosques. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in CE.

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